UNIT 10: ENDANGERED SPECIES
Choose the word which is stressed differently from the rest.
1. a. temperature b. serious c. awareness d. chemical
2. a. ability b. agriculture c. development d. contaminate
3. a. government b. agency c. benefit d. diversity
4. a. disappearance b. vulnerable c. conservation d. generation
5. a. current b. global c. crisis d. mankind
Choose a, b, c, or d that best completes each unfinished sentence, substitutes the underlined part, or has a close meaning to the original one.
6. _______ is a branch of Natural Science, and is the study of living organisms and how they interact with their environment.
a. Biology b. Biological c. Biologist d. Biologically
7. A / an _______ species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming extinct.
a. dangerous b. endanger c. endangered d. endangerment
8. Only a few of the many species at risk of extinction actually make it to the lists and obtain legal _______.
a. protect b. protection c. protective d. protector
9. Probability of extinction depends _______ both the population size and fine details of the population demography.
a. on b. in c. from d. for
10. Many modern medicines are derived _______ plants and animals.
a. on b. for c. from d. in
11. 15,589 species (7,266 animal species and 8,323 plant species) are now considered _______ risk _______ extinction.
a. at / of b. on / in c. for / with d. in / at
12. Internationally, 189 countries have signed _______ accord agreeing to create Biodiversity Action Plans to protect endangered and other threatened species.
a. a b. an c. the d. Ø
13. Known worldwide by its panda logo, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is dedicated to protecting _______ world′s wildlife and the rich biological diversity that we all need to survive.
a. a b. an c. the d. Ø
14. WWF is _______ leading privately supported international conservation organization in the world, and has sponsored more than 2,000 projects in 116 countries.
a. a b. an c. the d. Ø
15. Many nations have laws offering protection to these species, such as forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating _______.
a. agencies b. reserves c. awareness d. challenges
16. Being listed as an endangered species can have negative effect since it could make a species more desirable for collectors and poachers.
a. awareness b. preservation c. support d. impact
17. World Wide Fund for Nature was formed to do the mission of the preservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of natural resources, and the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption.
a. contamination b. energy c. extinction d. development
18. The Bali Tiger was declared extinct in 1937 due to hunting and habitat loss.
a. reserve b. generation c. natural environment d. diversity
19. It is found that endangered species are often concentrated in areas that are poor and densely populated, such as much of Asia and Africa.
a. disappeared b. increased c. threatened d. reduced
20. _______ is the existence of a wide variety of plant and animal species living in their natural environment. .
a. Biodiversity b. Conservation c. Globe d. Individual
21. She ___ be ill. I have just seen her playing basket ball in the school yard.
a. needn′t b. shouldn′t c. mustn′t d. can′t
22. Hiking the trail to the peak _______ be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic weather changes. You _______ research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent.
a. might / can b. may / mustn′t c. can / should d. must / needn′t
23. Peter has been working for 10 hours. He _______ be very tired now.
a. needn′t b. must c. has to d. should
24. He is unreliable. What he says _______ be believed.
a. cannot b. must not c. may not d. might not
25. I _______ find my own way there. You _______ wait for me.
a. should / can′t b. have to / must c. can / needn′t d. might / mustn′t
26. I was reading the book last night before I went to bed. I never took it out of this room. It ____ be lying around here somewhere. Where ___ it be?
a. might / needn′t b. can / should c. shouldn′t / may d. must / can
27. When you have a small child in the house, you _______ leave small objects lying around. Such objects _______ be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death.
a. should / must b. should not / might
c. needn′t / may d. mustn′t / can′t
28. Frank′s wallet is lying on the coffee table. He _______ it here last night.
a. must have left b. should have left
c. must be leaving d. needn′t leave
29. Jenny′s engagement ring was precious! It _______ have cost a fortune.
a. must b. should c. can d. needn′t
30. You _______ take your umbrella along with you today. It _______ rain later on this afternoon.
a. ought to / mustn′t b. needn′t / will
c. will / must d. should / might
Read the passage carefully and choose the correct answer.
Species that belong to an area are said to be native species. Typically, they have been part of a given biological landscape for a long period, and they are well adapted to the local environment and to the presence of other native species in the same general habitat. Exotic species are interlopers, foreign elements introduced intentionally or accidentally into new settings through human activities. In one context an introduced species may cause no obvious problems and may, over time, be regarded as being just as "natural" as any native species in the same habitat. In another context, exotics may seriously disrupt delicate ecological balances and create a cascade of unintended consequences. The worst of these unintended consequences arise when introduced species put native species in destruction by preying on them, altering their habitats, or out-competing them in the struggle for food resources. Although biological introductions have affected environments the world over, the most destructive, effects have occurred on islands, where introduced insects, cats, pigs, rats, mongooses, and other nonnative species have caused the grave endangerment or outright extinction of literally hundreds of species during the past 500 years.
One of other reason to cause species extinction is overexploitation. This word refers to the utilization of a species at a rate that is likely to cause its extreme endangerment or outright extinction. Among many examples of severe overexploitation, the case of the great whales stands out in special relief. By the middle of the 20th century, unrestricted whaling had brought many species of whales to incredibly low population sizes. In response to public pressure, in 1982 a number of nations, including the USA, agreed to an international moratorium on whaling. As a direct result, some whale species which are thought to have been on extinction′s doorstep 25 years ago have made amazing comebacks, such as grey whales in the western Pacific. Others remain at great risk. Many other species, however, continue to suffer high rates of exploitation because of the trade in animal parts. Currently, the demand for animal parts is centered in several parts of Asia where there. is a strong market for traditional medicines made from items like tiger bone and rhino horn.
31. Native species _______.
a. are not used to the local environment
b. never get along well with other native species in the same environment
c. tend to do harm to exotic species
d. have been part of a given biological landscape for a long period
32. Exotic species _______.
a. do no harm to native species and the local environment
b. may kill native species for food
c. always share the environment peacefully with native species
d. help to make the local environment more ideal to survive
33. According to the first paragraph, _______.
a. non-native species have caused badly damage to native ones
b. introducing new exotic species to local environments is necessary
c. exotic species have never been introduced on islands
d. very few native species have been damaged by exotic species
34. According to the second paragraph, by the middle of the 20 century ___.
a. whale population was the most crowded in marine life
b. whale hunting was illegal
c. whale population increased dramatically
d. whaling was not restricted
35. Tiger bone and rhino horn _______.
a. are not popular in Asian markets
b. are never in the trade of animal parts
c. are used for making traditional medicines
d. cannot be found in Asian markets
Choose the best sentence that can be made from the words given.
1. we I dependent / nature / cannot survive ourselves / without wildlife
a. As we are dependent on nature and we cannot survive ourselves without wildlife.
b. We dependent on nature and therefore cannot survive ourselves without wildlife.
c. We are dependent on nature and so cannot survive ourselves without wildlife.
d. We are dependent on nature and cannot survive ourselves without wildlife.
2. environmental education / help / spread / environmental awareness / share practical techniques / solve the environmental problems
a. Environmental education to help for spreading environmental awareness and sharing- practical techniques to solve the environmental problems.
b. Because environmental education helps to spread environmental awareness and shares practical techniques to solve the environmental problems.
c. Environmental education helps to spread environmental awareness and shares practical techniques to solve the environmental problems.
d. Environmental education that helps to spread environmental awareness and sharing practical techniques to solve the environmental problems.
3. we / engage / individuals / appreciate nature / the relationship / they have with wildlife
a. We should engage individuals to appreciate nature and the relationship that they have with wildlife.
b. We might engage individuals for appreciating nature and the relationship that they have with wildlife.
c. We must engage individuals to appreciate nature and the relationship when they have with wildlife.
d. We need engaging individuals to appreciate nature and the relationship which they have with wildlife.
4. everyone / pick up / one piece of trash / a day / about 6.6 billion pieces less
a. If everyone picked up one piece of trash a day, there would be about 6.6 billion pieces less.
b. When everyone will pick up one piece of trash a day, about 6.6 billion pieces would be less.
c. Because everyone picks up one piece of trash a day, about 6.6 billion pieces is less.
d. Unless everyone picked up one piece of trash a day, there will be about 6.6 billion pieces less.
5. you / conserve energy / go to school or to work by bus / turn off your electric devices / you are not using them
a. As you want to conserve energy, go to school or to work by bus and so turn off your electric devices when you are not using them.
b. If you want to conserve energy, go to school or to work by bus together with turn off ,your electric devices when you are not .using them.
c. Suppose you want to conserve energy, go to school or to work by bus and turn off your electric devices when you are not using them.
d. When you want to conserve energy, you needn′t go to school or to work by bus and turn off your electric devices when you are not using them.
Fill in each numbered blank with one suitable word or phrase.
Nearly 200 of the 1500 native plant species in Hawaii are at risk of going extinct in the near future because they have been (1) _____ to such low numbers. Approximately 90 percent of Hawaii′s plants are found nowhere else in the world but they are (2) _____ by alien invasive species such as feral goats, pigs, rodents and non- (3) _____ plants.
The Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Group is striving to (4) _____ the extinction of the 182 rare Hawaiian plants with fewer than 50 individuals remaining in the (5) _____. Since 1990, (6) _____ a result of their ′Plant Extinction Prevention Program′, sixteen species have been brought into (7) _____ and three species have been reintroduced. Invasive weeds have been removed in key areas and fencing put up in order to (8) _ plants in the wild.
In the future the Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Program aims (9) _____ collecting genetic material from the remaining plants in the wild for storage as a safety net for the future. They also aim to manage wild populations and where possible reintroduce species into (10) _____
1. a. disappeared b. reduced c. increased d. developed
2. a. guarded b. invested c. conserved d. threatened
3. a. nation b. native c. national d. nationally
4. a. prevent b. encourage c. stimulate d. influence
5. a. wild b. atmosphere c. hole d. sky
6. a. so b. due c. as d. but
7. a. contamination b. production c. cultivation d. generation
8. a. derive b. vary c. remain d. protect
9. a. at b. for c. with d. on
10. a. shelters b. reserves c. gardens d. halls